Pepsi Slogans

I randomly had to look up old Pepsi slogans for a project the other day. Even though I am a Coca-Cola person myself, I thought they were kind of fun!

1939–1950: "Twice as Much for a Nickel"
1950: "More Bounce to the Ounce"
1950–1957: "Any Weather is Pepsi Weather"
1957–1958: "Say Pepsi, Please"
1958–1961: "Be Sociable, Have a Pepsi"
1961-1963: "Now It's Pepsi for Those Who Think Young"
1963–1967: "Come Alive, You're in the Pepsi Generation"
1967–1969: "(Taste that beats the others cold) Pepsi Pours It On"
1969–1975: "You've Got a Lot to Live, and Pepsi's Got a Lot to Give"
1975–1977: "Have a Pepsi Day"
1977–1980: "Join the Pepsi People (Feeling Free)"
1980–1981: "Catch That Pepsi Spirit"
1981–1983: "Pepsi's Got Your Taste For Life"
1983: "It's Cheaper Than Coke!"
1983–1984: "Pepsi Now! Take the Challenge!"
1984–1991: "Pepsi. The Choice of a New Generation"
1986–1987: "We've Got The Taste"
1987–1990: "Pepsi's Cool"
1990–1991: "You got the right one Baby UH HUH"
1991–1992: "Gotta Have It"/"Chill Out"
1992–1993: "Be Young, Have Fun, Drink Pepsi"
1994–1995: "Double Dutch Bus"
1995: "Nothing Else is a Pepsi"
1995–1996: "Drink Pepsi. Get Stuff"
1997–1998: "Generation Next"
1998–1999: "It's The Cola"
1999–2000: "For Those Who Think Young"/"The Joy of Pepsi-Cola"
2003: "It's the Cola"/"Dare for More"
2006–2007: "Taste the One That's Forever Young"
2008: "–†epsi is #1"
2008–present: "Something for Everyone."
2009–present: "Refresh Everything"
2010–present: "Every Pepsi Refreshes the World."

(I think 1983 was a bit of a stretch!)

[source: Wikipedia]


Cheerleading Ruled "Not A Sport"

... by Federal Judge Stefan Underhill.

This all began when Quinnipiac University in Hamden Connecticut decided to cut their women's volleyball team due to budget issues. Under the 1972 federal law, Title IX, male and female college athletes have to be given equal opportunities. So Quinnipiac, in order to comply with Title IX, told the female volleyball players that competitive cheerleading would be an acceptable alternative. A lawsuit followed, and Judge Underhill found several places where the University wasn't adhering to Title IX, but what got the most headlines was his ruling on cheerleading as a Title IX sport.

Underhill wrote that "the University's competitive cheerleading team does not qualify as a varsity sport for the purposes of Title IX and, therefore, its members may not be counted as athletic participants under the statute."

Under Title IX, an activity can be considered a sport if it meets certain criteria, namely that it has coaches, practices, competitions during a defined season, a governing organization, and competition as its primary goal — not just the support of other athletic teams, reports The Associated Press.

Of course, hard-working competitive cheerleaders from all walks of life are disgusted with the ruling. But based on Title IX's criteria, even though cheerleaders do compete, it's not typically their primary purpose. So at the end of the day, the judge was correct in saying it's not a Title IX sport.

Maybe due to this ruling, more college squads will choose to just compete and not cheer on the sidelines? Guess we'll wait and see!


Having A Bad Day?

Your mom may have told you once that "bad days" only happen because of your "bad attitude". As Steve Schwartz (via Lifehacker) discovered, psychology backs her up!

After he and his girlfriend had two bad days in a row, he did a little research and found:

1. Our brains process the gobs of information we receive by categorizing and drawing conclusions from them. As a result, we can draw the wrong conclusion from certain events. For example, I could drop a bowl of cereal in my lap first thing in the morning, and I can (falsely) conclude, "Oh, geez, this is a sign that I am going to have a bad day".

People tend to like to believe in "bad luck" so they don't have to feel like negative consequences are the result of their actions. The person becomes a "victim" of random cosmic events instead. In the cereal example, believing in bad luck takes away my responsibility in the mess (ie. maybe if I ate at the table instead of at the couch, it wouldn't have spilled so easily)!

Once a person "decides" that the day is "ruined" and it's out of his or her control, the day is much more likely to go badly, according to Schwartz.

2. People's expectations directly affect their reality. This is commonly known as the "placebo effect". In studies where patients were given a fake pain killer, for example, researchers found that "the brain regions that interpret pain actually show far less activity when subjects have lowered expectations for the pain they will experience."

This is a double whammy now - first you've given up control of your day to "bad fate" and then, since your expectations are so low, you're more likely to see and feel bad things happening, when otherwise the day might look quite average from any other point of view.

3. Knowing this, bad days can be nipped in the bud! Schwartz offers the following tips:
-- Reflect on the negative feeling you have right now. Is it stress? Anxiety? What caused it? Once you've labeled it, do not think about the feeling or events anymore. Move on and only refer back to the label if necessary. Matthew Lieberman, an associate professor at UCLA, has shown that the simple act of putting our feelings into a word or two can dramatically reduce the effect of those feelings.

-- Re-evaluate the situation or events that lead to this stress. Find some conceivable positive outcome. Figure out why [it happened], and you're left with a powerful experience from the school of hard knocks, which you can use to your advantage in the future.

-- Remember that the outcome of the previous minute is not indicative of the outcome of the next minute. Likewise, the last hour has no bearing on the next hour, and this morning is no indication of what this afternoon will bring.
For more details on the science behind these findings and how to reset your brain, read Steve's blog entry here.


Fresh Fruit & Flowers Don't Mix Well

Cut flowers look so pretty in the summer next to a large bowl of fresh fruit on a patio table with brightly colored placemats!

Don't do it! I learned on the radio that putting flowers too close to fruit can cause them to wilt:
You should keep your flowers away from the fruit bowl. You can’t see it, but that fruit gives off ethylene gas, which will make the flowers deteriorate more quickly.
Also, you want to keep them out of the heat, so don't place them on a windowsill or next to the ol' television.

For more tips on keeping flowers fresher longer, click here.


The Benefits of Blemishes

Prevention Magazine claims that acne might not be all bad:
Researchers from the UK's University of Bristol tracked about 10,000 male college students for 30 years or more and found that those who suffered from severe breakouts as young adults were a third less likely to die from coronary heart disease.

Androgens -- hormones involved in acne -- may help prevent the narrowing of arteries, says study author Bruna Galobardes, MD. The findings may lead to androgen-related therapies to prevent heart disease.
Oh, man, I hope this is true! :)

(side note: if they give people androgens to prevent heart disease, will the patients get pimples? maybe it'd be worth it?)


Brilliant Birds?

Not just a pretty face!

My mom passed on some interesting information about parrots from USA Today. Apparently, not only are they good-looking, but they also have brains!

Excerpts from the article:
We all know that some birds can talk, but can they understand, too? Are they doing more than just "parroting" sounds? Harvard University research associate Irene Pepperberg has been studying those questions for nearly 30 years. The short answer: Yes.

Her African Grey parrot, Alex, can identify 100 different objects, seven colors, five shapes and quantities up to six and can understand concepts like bigger/smaller and absence.
The article put parrot-intelligence on par with that of great apes, whales, dolphins, and young children! The parrots researchers followed even had certain types of movies or television shows they preferred.

Not only that, but Pepperberg is convinced that parrots can consciously amuse themselves by tricking humans with their noises (such as imitating the phone and watching someone answer it)!

Nuts, huh?


Winner Winner Chicken Dinner!

Ever wonder where that common casino phrase came from?

According to the Detroit Free Press:
"Winner winner chicken dinner" is occasionally yelled out on the casino floor to suggest a positive gambling result. Years ago, every casino in Las Vegas had a three-piece chicken dinner for $1.79. Your typical wager back then was $2, so if you won your bet, you had enough for a chicken dinner.


Prevent Jellyfish Stings

For those of you lucky ones who get to live on or visit the ocean this summer, Lifehacker shared a really easy way to prevent jellyfish stings: pantyhose!

Apparently, some short stingers can't penetrate the tight weave of pantyhose. And other stingers are triggered by contact with skin, which can't happen with the pantyhose in the way.

Although I can't imagine most people adding nylon sleeves and such to their bathing suits, I bet this is particularly helpful to those who like to scuba dive or spend a lot of time observing ocean life. I mean, they are likely to wear a wet-suit anyway, right?

Lifehacker also included a helpful tip for if you do get stung: use a blowdryer on the hottest setting you can stand (without burning your skin) to dry out the stingers. After the heat is applied, you can scrap the stingers off with a razor.

In case you don't have a blowdryer handy at the beach or on your boat, I learned a quick way to ease the sting after I got stung myself: a spritz of vinegar. The local lifeguard had some on hand just for that purpose, and it worked beautifully. Whatever you do, the lifeguard said, don't rinse it with freshwater or it'll just irritate it more; you can rinse with salt water if you need to.

(Of course, seek a professional opinion about the kind of jellyfish you'll be swimming with - you want to seek immediate medical attention if the jellyfish sting could potentially be life-threatening!)

Safe swimming!


What An American Hopeful Should Know

In the 4th and last of the Detroit Free Press's United States trivia entries, here are some facts about American government, history, and geography that may come up on the US Citizenship test.

Would you pass the test? :)

1. The Constitution sets up the government, defines the government, and protects the basic rights of Americans.

2. The idea of self-government is in the first three words of the Constitution: "We the people".

3. The First Amendment outlines the freedom of speech, religion, assembly, press, and petition of the government.

4. The Constitution has 27 amendments.

5. America uses a capitalist economy (market economy).

6. The "rule of law" is that everyone must follow the law; leaders must obey the law; government must obey the law; no one is above the law.

7. Some of the reasons that the colonists came to America were freedom, political liberty, religious freedom, economic opportunity, and to escape persecution.

8. The Constitution was written in 1787.

9. The US bought the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803.

10. The US fought four wars in the 1800s: the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Civil War, and the Spanish-American War.

11. There were several problems that led to the US Civil War, including slavery, economic reasons, and states' rights.

12. The Emancipation Proclamation ended slavery in the Confederacy.

13. Woodrow Wilson was president during World War I.

14. The two longest rivers in the US are the Mississippi River and the Missouri River.

15. The US flag has 13 stripes to represent the 13 original colonies.

Know all that? I don't know if I would pass a citizenship test, to be honest! Lucky for me I was born here!

Thanks Detroit Free Press for all your fun facts!


What An American College Student Should Know

For part 3 of the Detroit Free Press's US History trivia entries, here is what the University of Michigan expects its "Introduction to American Government" students to know.

1. At the Constitutional Convention, the institution of slavery was opposed by some delegates but was preserved in order to maintain unity among the states.

2. Proposed amendments to the Constitution must be supported by a 2/3rds vote in both houses of Congress. Amendments are ratified by either 3/4ths of the state legislature or 3/4ths of state conventions.

3. The Constitution does not establish any political parties.

4. Some of the public goods provided by the government are national defense, development of a uniform standard of weights and measures, and building interstate highways.

5. Legislation can be killed at several points in the legislative process, including on the House or Senate floor, during the conference report, or during the hearings and committee markup stage.

6. The US has a lower voter turnout than Italy, Mexico, and Canada.

7. In November, 1777, the Continental Congress adopted the US's first written constitution, known as the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.

8. Under the original version of the current US Constitution, the part of elected government designed to be directly responsible to the people is the House of Representatives.

9. Under the US Constitution, the sole power to originate revenue bills is vested in the House of Representatives.

10. Limiting government by dividing it into two levels -- national and state -- each with sufficient independence to compete with the other is called Federalism.

Would you have passed? One more set of US trivia tomorrow!


What An American High Schooler Should Know

Today's entry is part two of the Detroit Free Press's US History trivia from Sunday. Here are the facts that the Detroit Public Schools expects its high schoolers to know about US Civics.

1. The best way for Americans to participate in government is to vote.

2. The main purposes of government are to maintain order, provide public services, and to provide national security.

3. The US government derives its power from the consent of the governed.

4. We use a system of checks and balances to prevent any branch of the government from having too much power.

5. The most important reason for having a limited form of government is to ensure government by public consent.

6. "Democracy" means a rule by the people.

7. The primary role of Congress is to write and enact laws.

8. Representative government is necessary in a democracy because we can't all get together in one place to discuss our problems.

9. Part of the reason the colonists declared independence from Britain on July 4th, 1776, was because they were seeking representation in government.

10. The three branches of the federal government are the executive, the judicial, and the legislative.

How are we doing so far? Pretty basic, right?


What An American 6th Grader Should Know

The Detroit Free Press posted a lengthy quiz about US History in last Sunday's newspaper. In keeping with the Independence Day theme, I decided to share some of their facts with you this week.

Today's facts come from what the Detroit Public Schools expect their 6th graders to know. How many facts did YOU know?

1. Thomas Jefferson helped lead the colonists to revolution by writing the Declaration of Independence (we learned that yesterday!).

2. The role of a constitution in democracy is to guide the government and list guaranteed rights of citizens.

3. In settling conflict, the principal listens to all students' point of view. The principal is protecting the students' constitutional right of Freedom of Speech.

4. People may help make or change laws by expressing their opinions to elected officials, voting, and circulating petitions (among other things).

5. One of the ways that a person may become a US citizen is to be born in the US or its territories.

6. US citizens have the right to vote, to hold elected office, to practice one's own religion, and to have a fair trial (among other things).

7. US citizens have the duty to obey laws, defend the nation, and pay taxes (among other things).

8. The colonists wanted to separate from Britain because they believed that all men are created equal, all men have some rights given to them by God, and all men have the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

9. The framers of the Constitution wanted a representative government to limit its control.

10. The judicial branch of the US government protects the rights of citizens by creating laws.

Are you smarter than a 6th grader? :)


Fourth of July Trivia

Happy Birthday, America!

I went to Trivia Night at a local Bar & Grill tonight and discovered that I don't know much about American history. :) Here are some of the fun facts about July 4th that I just learned:

- One US President was born on July 4th:
Calvin Coolidge, 1872

- Three US Presidents passed away on July 4th:
John Adams & Thomas Jefferson, 1826
James Monroe, 1831

- The Declaration of Independence was...
... written primarily by Thomas Jefferson.
... the formal explanation of what the Continental Congress voted on on July 2, 1776 (to declare the colonies' independence from Great Britain).
... adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776.
... first read to the colonists on July 8, 1776, in Philadelphia's Independence Square.
... eventually signed by 56 delegates, 2 of which would later become US Presidents.

- Fireworks were used to celebrate the 4th of July during the first observance in 1777.

- Independence Day wasn't a federal holiday until 1938.

Hope you all enjoyed your holiday weekend!